Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences

Abstract Numerical dating of glacial deposits is important for understanding Quaternary glacial evolution. Optically stimulated luminescence OSL dating is one of the techniques widely used on such sediments. Initially, four glacial stages were identified based on field observations of moraine distribution and geomorpho-stratigraphic relations. A total of 39 OSL samples were then collected from glaciofluvial sand layers or lenses and from till. Contrary to previous experience suggesting that coarse grains are usually better bleached than fine grains prior to deposition, our results show that estimated OSL ages for fine grains are generally younger than those for medium grains. This suggests that the two fractions may have come from different sources and thus have different bleaching histories, and that fine-grained quartz may be more suitable for OSL dating of these materials. Applying the minimum age model to data from medium-grained quartz yields ages close to those obtained from fine-grained quartz, suggesting that both can be used for dating glacial advances. The OSL dates suggest that glaciers in the studied area advanced at 0.

Ice caps existed throughout the Lateglacial Interstadial in northern Scotland

Larger settlements like Jericho arose along salt and flint trade routes. Northern Eurasia was resettled as the glaciers of the last glacial maximum retreated. World population was at a few million people, likely below 5 million. Researchers probing the ocean bottom have found story-high towers of stone deep in the ocean near a section of volcanic fault ridges that extend for 6, miles along the Atlantic Ocean floor.

Late Pliocene age of glacial deposits at Heidemann Valley, East Antarctica: evidence for the last major glaciation in the Vestfold Hills – Volume 22 Issue 1 – Eric A. Colhoun, Kevin W. Kiernan, Anne McConnell, Patrick G. Quilty, David Fink, Colin V. Murray-Wallace, Jason Whitehead.

Much of Yellowstone was shaped by glaciers. Blue lines are contours in thousands of feet on the reconstructed Pinedale glacier surface. Black dashes with double-pointed arrows indicate main ice divides. Licciardi in December from Licciardi and Pierce Glaciers result when, for a period of years, more snow falls in an area than melts.

Once the snow reaches a certain depth, it turns into ice and begins to move under the force of gravity or the pressure of its own weight. Ice and water erode and transport earth materials as well as rocks and sediments. Glaciers also deposit materials.

The degradation of glacial deposits in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

HAN Fengqing Cite this article: Optically stimulated luminescence dating of sandy deposits from Gulang county at the southern margin of the Tengger Desert, China. Journal of Arid Land, , 8 1: The interpretation of quartz optically stimulated luminescence equivalent dose versus time plots. Radiation Measurements, 32 2: A modified SAR protocol for optical dating of individual grains from young quartz samples.

Dating the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition 55 alteration, depending on the geological context through which the fossil material was transported and/or into which it was eventually deposited.

Human timeline and Nature timeline Evidence for ancient glaciation mounts[ edit ] Long before the idea of a global glaciation was established, a series of discoveries began to accumulate evidence for ancient Precambrian glaciations. The first of these discoveries was published in by J. Thomson who found ancient glacier-reworked material tillite in Islay , Scotland.

Similar findings followed in Australia and India A fourth and very illustrative finding that came to be known as ” Reusch’s Moraine ” was reported by Hans Reusch in northern Norway in Many other findings followed, but their understanding was hampered by the rejection of continental drift. With the advancement of the continental drift hypothesis, and eventually plate tectonic theory, came an easier explanation for the glaciogenic sediments—they were deposited at a point in time when the continents were at higher latitudes.

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Between these various ice-marginal landscapes, other features and deposits have been identified. For example, behind the morainal ridges, numerous subtle sets of narrow, parallel ridge systems sometimes occur over large areas. Such minor-moraine crests, which are spaced about feet apart and may rise no more than 5 feet, are barely perceptible on the ground; however, their patterns are clearly visible in aerial photographs, such as those of Story and Hardin counties. Other identified features include sites of once large but now extinct glacial lakes, which are seen today as broad flats covering hundreds of square miles in southern Kossuth and Hancock counties glacial Lake Jones and also in a band through Wright, Hamilton, and southern Webster counties glacial Lake Wright.

In addition, extensive outwash deposits of sand and gravel carried and sorted by meltwater floods are found in front of some of the prominent end moraines along former overflow channels and glacial meltwater routes that are now the courses of such rivers as the Cedar, Shell Rock, Iowa, Skunk, Des Moines, Raccoon, Boyer, and Little Sioux.

Hayden Valley: The valley is covered with glacial till left from the most recent glacial retreat. It also has a variety of glacial and ice-water contact deposits. It also has a variety of glacial and ice-water contact deposits.

The older, Late Proterozoic sedimentary sequence is comprised of the Grand Canyon Supergroup which consists of the Chaur Group, the Nankoweap Formation, the Unkar Group, and the Sixtymile Formation, and is only found in isolated patches along the main Colorado River corridor and some of its major tributaries Figure 2. Beginning about 1, million years ago and lasting about million years during the Late Proterozoic Era , approximately 13, feet of sediments and lava were deposited in coastal and shallow marine environments.

Basin-and-Range style crustal deformation beginning about million years ago lifted and tilted these rocks. Subsequent erosion removed these tilted layers from much of the Grand Canyon region leaving only wedge-shaped remnants preserved in large graben structures Figure 2 , mainly observed in the eastern parts of the canyon. These mudstones, sandstones, and limestones are widely distributed in the canyon, but total a mere 2, and 5, feet thick by comparison with Proterozoic rocks.

They offer a plethora of evidence interpreted as coastal and marine environments, including several significant marine incursions from the west, developed on a passive continental margin setting between about and million years ago. Rock formations from the Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian periods are present. The suite of sedimentary rocks exposed by the downcutting of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park includes an older Proterozoic sequence, and a younger Paleozoic sequence.

A geologic map of the eastern Grand Canyon area indicating the general outcrop locations of Proterozoic crystalline basement and Grand Canyon Super Group sedimentary rocks, sedimentary rocks of the Paleozoic sequence, and geologic structures; note the general juxtaposition of Supergroup rocks against bounding normal faults. Erosion has removed most Mesozoic Era sedimentary rocks from the region, although small remnants can be found, particularly in the western Grand Canyon.

Nearby rock outcrops, particularly to the north in the Grand Staircase area, suggest 4, to 8, feet of Mesozoic sedimentary layers once covered the Grand Canyon region, but were removed by uplift and erosion in the early Teritary.

Periglacial environments

For scientists, however, it has served as a speed gun for calculating the trajectory and timing of an ancient glacier that once played an active role in global climate change. Schaefer refers to the Laurentide Ice Sheet that covered the island of Manhattan, along with the northern third of the U. It had spent more than 70, years affecting and reflecting the world’s weather through periods of melting and growth.

Today, only carved terrain and rocky remnants remain, including the popular leftover that lies a short walk east of West 62nd Street. Umpire Rock is just one of many enormous boulders—from Antarctica to New Zealand—created under the weight and movement of glacial ice. With increasingly sophisticated techniques, Schaefer and other scientists are more closely studying the chemical footprints on these rocks, thereby gaining valuable insights into climate change.

Fluvial deposits from the Last Glacial are common in Northwest Europe and provide a wealth of palaeoclimatic and palaeohydrological information. However, since many sequences either fall outside the limits of the radiocarbon method or do not contain material datable by the radiocarbon method, a .

Glaciers constitute much of the Earth that makes up the cryosphere, the part of the Earth that remains below the freezing point of water. Most glacial ice today is found in the polar regions, above the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. In fact, much of the topography in the northern part of North America, as well as in the high mountain regions of the west, owe their form to erosional and depositional processes of glaciers.

The latest glaciation ended only 10, years ago. The Earth has experienced numerous glaciations, the most recent during the Pleistocene Epoch between 1. Other episodes occurred in the Permian, Ordovician, and Late Precambrian. Definition of a glacier A glacier is a permanent on a human time scale, because nothing on the Earth is really permanent body of ice, consisting largely of recrystallized snow, that shows evidence of downslope or outward movement due to the pull of gravity.

Types of Glaciers note: Mountain Glaciers – Relatively small glaciers which occur at higher elevations in mountainous regions. Smallest of these occupy hollows or bowl-shaped depressions on sides of mountains cirque glaciers.


Hide All Adamson, D. Late Quaternary glaciation and deglaciation of the Bunger Hills, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 4, — Cainozoic history of the Vestfold Hills.

last-glacial loess deposits in the North American mid-con- tinent, using high-resolution luminescence dating to deter- mine a chronology for the loess, thus enabling the calcula-.

Permafrost environments are those where the ground is frozen for more than two years in a row[1]. In contrast, paraglacial processes, landforms and landscapes are those that are directly conditioned by former glaciation and deglaciation[2]. Antarctic environments and landscapes are conditioned by both periglacial and paraglacial processes, with landforms related to frozen ground, and with the redistribution of glacigenic sediments by fluvial, coastal and aeolian processes.

Rock wall relaxation following the removal of buttressing glaciers is also a common paraglacial process in Antarctica. The periglacial environment is a cold climate, frequently marginal to the glacial environment, and is characteristically subject to intense cycles of freezing and thawing of superficial sediments. Permafrost commonly occurs within this periglacial environment.

However, processes that involve the freezing, unfreezing, and movement of water are considered to be periglacial; processes associated with the presence of perennially frozen ground are permafrost. Permafrost is therefore closely associated with the periglacial environment, and usually permafrost processes take place within a periglacial environment[1].

Periglacial environments in Antarctica Most of the ice-free ground in Antarctica is underlain by frozen ground[3]. Rock glaciers are common in sub-Antarctic islands and coastal areas[4], in the Transantarctic Mountains and in the McMurdo Dry Valleys[5]. Climate change is likely to result in changes in periglacial areas, such as large hydrological changes, increased methane release to the atmosphere, changes in vegetation composition, and increases in dissolved material to rivers and oceans[3].

Slope instability is likely to increase under a warming climate, and processes involving changing wind regimes, freeze-thaw cycles and related landforms will also be affected. We will now look at a few case studies of Antarctic periglacial and permafrost environments. Antarctic periglacial environments are very variable, and the processes and landforms active are dependent on the amount of seasonal meltwater available.

Glossary of Glacier Terms

Much cooler summers and copious snowfall are required, but they are inversely related, since cooler air is drier. It is unlikely cooler temperatures could induce a change in atmospheric circulation that would provide the needed moisture. As a result, well over 60 theories have been proposed.

Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, Stone-Cold Data from Ancient Glacial Deposits .

Understanding Lakes Knowledge of the formation and history of a lake is important to understanding its structure. The current chemical and biological condition of a lake depends on many factors, including: In Minnesota, there are 12, lakes larger than 4 hectares 10 acres. The glaciers that covered much of the state until about 12, years ago created most Minnesota lakes.

Glaciers formed lake basins by gouging holes in loose soil or soft bedrock, depositing material across stream beds, or leaving buried chunks of ice that later melted to leave lake basins Figure 1. When these natural depressions or impoundments filled with water, they became lakes. Figure 1 After the glaciers retreated, sediments accumulated in the deeper parts of the lake.

These sediments entered the lakes from tributaries and from decomposed organic material derived from both the watershed and aquatic from plants and algae. An average Minnesota lake contains meters of such sediment in its deeper parts. Lake sediment deposits provide a record of a lake’s history. Paleolimnology is the study of lake sediments.

Paleolimnologists collect lake sediments using special coring devices to study a lake’s physical, chemical and biological history. Lake sediments are often dated using the radioisotopes lead and carbon The age of a given sediment sample is based on the radioactive decay of the isotope.

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Godthelp in Hill, Robert S. White, , The Nature of Hidden Worlds: Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne. Michael Archer, Suzanne J. Gehling, Kathleen Grey, Guy M. Franklin, The revolution that didn’t arrive:

glacial deposits have not been dated numerically, the exact timing of glaciations is unknown, which precludes paleocli- matic interpretation based on the glacial records.

A number of objections have been raised against the snowball earth hypothesis, many of which have been more or less successfully rebutted. The global deposits are probably diachronous not the same age everywhere and are no more extensive than Phanerozoic Cambrian to Recent, or Ma glaciations collectively.

There is mounting paleomagnetic evidence that ice-sheets reached the ocean even in the tropics during each of the three proposed snowball earths, and mounting chemostratigraphic evidence that the glaciations were broadly synchronous. The Gaskiers glaciation circa Ma in eastern Newfoundland Canada has been shown from precise U-Pb zircon dating of multiple volcanic ash layers to have lasted less than 1.

Short-lived glaciation contradicts the “hard” snowball earth hypothesis, which predicts they last for millions of years. This result, combined with the limited distribution of broadly contemporaneous glacial deposits, the lack of reliable paleomagnetic evidence for low-latitude glaciation, the absence of banded iron formation, and the poorly-developed or absent “cap” carbonate, makes it doubtful that the Gaskiers Formation represents a snowball earth.

The sedimentary character and great thickness ‘s of m of Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits locally point to the existence of fast-flowing wet-base glaciers. These should be absent if the ocean was totally ice covered and the equatorial climate was as cold and dry as present Antarctica. Evidence for a Ma Marinoan ice stream has recently been found in northern Namibia. Indicators of open water—for example wave ripples, far-travelled ice-rafted debris, and biomarkers of phototrophism—are found within Sturtian and Marinoan glacial strata.

A potential weakness in this argument is that most glacial deposits left after an ice age formed while the ice was in its final retreat. There would of course be open water at that time irrespective of the maximum ice extent.


Full text not currently available from Enlighten. The samples were collected with the aim of establishing a relative chronology of the fluvio-glacial and post-glacial events. Sampling was undertaken by E. In total four dating samples were submitted to the laboratory. All samples were subjected to laboratory preparation of sand-sized quartz.

Glacial Terrane/Deposit Characteristics Central Indiana: Wisconsin and pre-Wisconsin ice marginal zones 3-D glacial geologic mapping at several scales (quadrangle, county, and regional) to investigate groundwater resources, glacial processes, and glacial chronology. Central area includes Bartholomew, Johnson, Morgan, and Hendricks Counties.

Link Share All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you. Description We constrain, in detail, fluctuations of two former ice caps in NW Scotland with multibeam seabed surveys, geomorphological mapping and cosmogenic 10Be isotope analyses. Ice caps existed throughout the Lateglacial Interstadial in northern Scotland.

Surface-exposure ages from boulders on moraine ridges in Assynt and the SummerIslesregionshowthatsubstantial,dynamic,icecapsexistedinNWScotlandbetween13and14kaBP. We interpret this as strong evidence that large active glaciers probably survived throughout theLateglacialInterstadial,and thatduringthe OlderDryasperiod ca. Reproducedwiththe permission of NERC.

Older Dryas; moraines; cosmogenic dating; multibeam bathymetry. Introduction Many workers have examined the nature of the climate inBritain during the last glacial—interglacial transition ca. Tradition-ally, glacial deposits and landforms from the mountains andglens of western Scotland have been ascribed to the YoungerDryas YD chronozone Examples of earlier, unequivocal, glacialadvances or oscillations in Scotland are rare in the literature,the most notable being the Wester Ross Readvance, along theNWseaboardofmainlandScotlandca.

During the interveningLateglacial Interstadial GI-1

Glacial Deposits and Landforms

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